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This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the LOWER function in Microsoft Excel.


Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.



The LOWER function syntax has the following arguments:

  • Text    Required. The text you want to convert to lowercase. LOWER does not change characters in text that are not letters.


Copy the example data in the following table, and paste it in cell A1 of a new Excel worksheet. For formulas to show results, select them, press F2, and then press Enter. If you need to, you can adjust the column widths to see all the data.


E. E. Cummings

Apt. 2B





Lower case of first string (e. e. cummings)

e. e. cummings


Lower case of last string (apt. 2b)

apt. 2b

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